R.D. Hersch, F. Collaud, P. Emmel
Proc. SIGGRAPH 2003, ACM Trans. on Graphics, Vol. 22, No.3, 427-436
By combining a metallic ink and standard inks, one may create printed images having a dynamic appearance: an image viewed under specular reflection may be considerably different from the same image viewed under non-specular reflection. Patterns which are either dark or hidden become highlighted under specular reflection, yielding interesting visual effects. To create such images, one needs to be able to reproduce at non-specular reflection angles the same colors, by standard inks alone or in combination with a metallic ink. Accurate color prediction models need to be established which model the underlying physical phenomena in a consistent manner. To meet this challenge, we propose two models, one for predicting the reflection spectra of standard inks on coated paper and one for predicting the reflection spectra of a combination of standard inks and a metallic ink. They are enhancements of the classical Clapper-Yule model which models optical dot gain of halftone prints by taking into account lateral scattering within the paper bulk and multiple internal reflections. The models we propose also take into account physical dot gain and ink spreading for standard inks as well as the low reflectance of metallic inks at non-specular reflection angles and the poor adherence of standard inks printed on top of a metallic ink (trapping effect). These models open the way towards color separation of images to be reproduced by combining a metallic ink and standard inks. Several designs printed on an offset press demonstrate their applicability and their benefits for high-end design and security applications.
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